Freeport Indonesia Hentikan Operasi di Papua Banyak Orang Jatuh Dalam Jurang Stres Menganga

Freeport Indonesia Hentikan Operasi di Papua Jurang Stres Menganga

RiauJOS.com, Jakarta - Perusahaan pertambangan Amerika Freeport-McMoRan telah menghentikan operasi tambang emas terbesar di dunia yang terletak di provinsi Papua. Perusahaan itu tengah bersitegang dengan pemerintah Indonesia atas aturan-aturan pertambangan.

Ketika Freeport mulai memberhentikan puluhan ribu pekerja, ekonomi setempat paling terkena imbasnya. Di Mimika, provinsi Papua di mana terdapat tambang Grasberg, 91% pendapatan kotor berasal dari Freeport.

Freeport Indonesia secara tiba-tiba menghentikan produksi pada 10 Februari lalu dan memberhentikan 10% pekerja asingnya. Freeport mempekerjakan 32 ribu orang di Indonesia, di mana 12 ribu diantaranya adalah pekerja tetap.

Pembekuan itu merupakan tanggapan terhadap perubahan kontrak dengan pemerintah Indonesia, yang ditandatangani pada tahun 1981. Indonesia ingin mengenakan kewajiban tambahan pada Freeport guna meningkatkan pendapatan sektor dalam negeri dari sumber-sumber daya alamnya. Pekan lalu Freeport membalas dengan mengancam akan membawa kasus itu ke mahkamah arbitrase internasional dan menuntut ganti kerugian pada pemerintah.

Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral ESDM belum bisa diminta komentar atas isu ini.

Para pengamat di Papua dan Jakarta khawatir perubahan aturan dan kini pemberhentian karyawan akan mematikan perekonomian lokal dan memicu aksi kekerasan di kawasan yang dalam sejarah dikenal tidak stabil. Papua Barat telah sejak lama dikenal sebagai kawasan bermasalah di Indonesia dan gerakan yang menginginkan kemerdekaan kawasan itu kerap bentrok dengan militer Indonesia.

“Saya kira pemerintah tidak memahami dampak sosial pembekuan operasi Freeport di Mimika,” ujar Octavianus Danunan, editor suratkabar lokal “Radar Timika”. Ditambahkannya, “Freeport mengelola dua rumah sakit, memberikan ratusan beasiswa pada pelajar setempat, dan tentunya menyediakan lapangan kerja pada ribuan warga Papua. Dengan PHK karyawan ini, orang jadi sangat khawatir.”

“Pemberhentian karyawan ini telah membatasi kehidupan banyak orang,” ujar John Gobai, anggota DPRD Papua.

“Kita telah mendengar dari banyak suku asli di Timika bahwa orang-orang jatuh sakit karena stress. Mereka jatuh dalam jurang stress”, tambahnya.

Menurut laporan internal Freeport tahun 2015, sekitar 36% karyawan tetap mereka adalah warga asli Papua.

“Saya kira karena banyak diantara mereka yang kehilangan pekerjaan, banyak yang ingin berdemonstrasi. Tetapi ironisnya, mereka di-PHK karena kebijakan pemerintah. Saya kira seluruh situasi ini merupakan pelanggaran HAM”, ujar Gobai.

"Aksi kekerasan sangat mungkin terjadi’’, ujar Andreas Harsono, peneliti dan aktivis Human Rights Watch.

“Timika itu daerah di bagian timur Papua yang masih liar. Daerah ini terletak di lokasi dimana terdapat pos yang dihuni oleh lebih dari 3.500 petugas keamanan di sepanjang jalan tambang, belum termasuk gerilyawan Papua dan ratusan anggota militer yang membangkang; yang semuanya ingin mendapatkan sesuatu dari tambang emas dan batubara itu. Penembakan di sepanjang jalan itu merupakan hal yang kerap terjadi. Saya tidak bisa membayangkan situasi disana ketika Freeport menghentikan operasi dan mem-PHK 30 ribu pekerja tambangnya.”

Gobai mengatakan sudah ada beberapa aksi demonstrasi yang terjadi di depan markas Freeport dan ia memperkirakan hal ini akan terus berlanjut.

CEO Freerport Richard Adkerson mengatakan pada kantor berita Reuters, perusahaan itu berkomitmen untuk tetap ada di Indonesia, salah satu di antaranya karena sekitar sepertiga perekonomian di Papua bergantung pada tambang Grasberg.

Adkerson pada 12 Februari lalu mengeluarkan sebuah ultimatum keras dengan tenggat 120 hari pada pemerintah Indonesia, untuk mencabut tuntutannya atau menghadapi tuntutan di mahkamah arbitrase internasional.

Keterlibatan Freeport di Indonesia berlangsung sejak jaman pemerintah Soeharto, yang mencakup pembangunan wilayah Papua seluas 250.000 hektar pada tahun 1967. Freeport adalah perusahaan asing pertama yang menandatangani kontrak dengan pemerintah baru Indonesia, dan sejak saat itu menjadi perusahaan terbesar di seluruh Indonesia.

Menurut laporan “Inside Indonesia”, pada era Soeharto itu Freeport menikmati hubungan khusus yang rumit sebagai “quasi-state organization for Jakarta”, tetapi hubungan itu surut dibawah presiden yang terpilih secara demokratis.

Polemik yang memicu penghentian operasi bulan ini adalah UU No. 4 Tahun 2009 tentang Mineral dan Batubara (Minerba) yang mengharuskan Freeport membangun smelter – atau fasilitas pengolahan hasil tambang untuk meningkatkan kandungan logam – bernilai 2,9 miliar dolar, dan melepaskan 51% sahamnya pada perusahaan swasta nasional atau BUMN Indonesia dalam sepuluh tahun.

Freeport berkeras bahwa karena kontrak yang sudah ditandatangani saat ini berlaku hingga tahun 2021, maka pihaknya tidak perlu mematuhi aturan tersebut. Tetapi pejabat-pejabat Indonesia – yang dipimpin oleh Menteri ESDM Ignatius Jonan – meningkatkan tekanan terhadap Freeport untuk mengubah kontrak sesuai aturan tahun 2009, yang akan mengubah status Freeport dari kontrak karya menjadi ijin usaha pertambangan khusus atau IUPK. Jika dalam status kontrak karya posisi negara dan perusahaan itu setara, maka dalam status IUPK posisi negara selaku pemberi ijin menjadi lebih tinggi, skema perpajakan bersifat “prevailing” atau menyesuaikan aturan yang berlaku dan berkewajiban melepas saham tadi.

VOA Indonesia
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